Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is located in Karachi. It was established in
1981 by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan
(MoST). Its Head Office is at Clifton
Karachi, with three sub-stations at
Gwadar, Sonmiani and Ghora Bari. The main area of research of
the Institute is the north Arabian Sea and beyond. The oceanic and atmospheric
processes of the north Arabian Sea modify our climate, offer numerous living and
non-living resources, Oceanographic research brings together all the scientific
disciplines needed to study the ocean:
ocean technology, coastal hydraulics & coastal zone management
The ambit of
oceanography extends from the atmosphere to the ocean floor and below it, and
from the coastal region to the great mass of the deep oceans.
Pakistan coast is
about 1046 Km long extending from Indian border in the east to the Iranian
border in the west. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan is about
240,000 sq. km, with additional continental shelf area of about 50,000 sq. km.
As such, the total maritime zone of Pakistan is over 30% of the land area. This
region is characterized by distinctive oceanic phenomena, that produces rich
fisheries, mineral, and hydrocarbon resource.
Important Oceanic Phenomena & Features
1. Monsoon and climatic change
2. Upwelling and circulation
3. Mixing of Red Sea and Gulf Water
4. Indus estuary and sedimentation
5. Submarine Indus Cone
6. Murray Fracture Zone (Leaky Transform Fault)
7. Makran Subduction Margin
data collection and research are required to understand the above processes and
features which have direct bearing on locating the living and nonliving
resources and their sustainable exploitation and conservation. The program of
NIO has been oriented and set up to develop the capabilities and facilities for
achieving these objectives.
The marine resources
of Pakistan have so far remained unexploited and concerted efforts for
oceanographic research in the country is required.
The Institute is an
autonomous organization under the Ministry of Science & Technology, Government
of Pakistan. The main components involved in the development of NIO are :
Development of professional and technical manpower
2. Development of institutional capability
3. Management capability for marine data acquisition and processing.
The first objective
to a great extent has been achieved. Presently 30 scientists are involved in
oceanographic activities, 26 of these have been trained abroad. In addition
there are, 39 supports staff on the roll of NIO. The Institute has its own
building on the Clifton shore. For deep sea research NIO has access to a
hydrographic cum oceanographic Research Vessel "Behr Paima". In addition to the
main laboratories at Karachi, NIO also has a research station at Gwadar
Baluchistan coast. NIO in a relatively a short period of its existence has made
optimum use of the limited resources. It has initiated, conducted and completed
a number of projects related to ocean research and has effectively responded to
a wide variety of user's requirements, that is marine industry and national
institutions involved in the field of marine research.